MAI Journal 2021: Volume 10 Issue 2
This issue of MAI Journal, Volume 10, Issue 2 (2021), contains 12 articles and two situation reports across a range of research areas that are representative of the breadth and vitality of Indigenous research in Aotearoa. This issue reflects the multidisciplinary nature of MAI Journal articles, covering racism, gender and well-being across education, health, history, entrepreneurship and psychology, with a strong focus on kaupapa Māori theory and methodological principles.
The lead article in this issue, by Marama McDonald, Waikaremoana Waitoki and Anna Rolleston, is titled “Whakapiki wairua: Co-designing and implementing a Māori mindfulness mental health intervention in a wharekura”. The paper explores a three-year co-design, implementation and evaluation process of an intervention to improve the mental health of rangatahi in a wharekura setting. It follows a Mahitahi co-design methodology drawing from Māori design, collaboration, engagement and support practices, and considers how this methodology may support transformative, holistic approaches to the well-being of rangatahi Māori.
Kelly Mitchell and Vini Olsen-Reeder are the authors of “Tapu and noa as negotiators of Māori gender roles in precolonial Aotearoa and today”, an exploration of the relationship between tapu, gender roles and colonisation. The paper argues that the tikanga around tapu and noa may have been less rigid in precolonial Aotearoa than it is today, and that gender may have replaced tapu in the division of labour, after colonisation. Thus, recentring tapu may be a pathway towards further decolonisation and empowering of all Māori genders.
The third article, authored by Lara M. Greaves, Jade Le Grice, Ariel Schwencke, Sue Crengle, Sonia Lewycka, Logan Hamley and Terryann C. Clark, is titled “Measuring whanaungatanga and identity for well-being in rangatahi Māori: Creating a scale using the Youth19 Rangatahi Smart Survey”. The paper explains the process followed by the researchers to develop a quantitative scale to measure whanaungatanga, as part of a larger body of work to develop quantitative measurements for Te Ao Māori using Māori concepts.
In their article entitled “Ngā kare ā-roto o ngā Kaipupuri Whenua”, Kiri Dell and Hinetu Dell consider the issues faced by landowners and land trustees in navigating relevant legislation when wanting to develop their land. They sought answers to the question of why this was so difficult. Although not a new area of research, the article seeks to provide a pathway of tolerance, so that owners realise their dreams for their land. The article is written entirely in te reo Māori.
An outcome of the effort to protect the elderly during the pandemic was to silence their voice. The elderly are often referred to as needing protection, but the article “The voices of kaumātua during the COVID-19 pandemic” by Teorongonui Josie Keelan, Ngahuia Te Awekotuku, Linda Waimarie Nikora, Kiri Edge and Karyn Okeroa McRae tells a different story of kaumātua who are active leaders, organisers and communicators in their community.
The sixth article in the issue, “Mairangitia te angitū: Ngāpuhi student role models and aspirations for the future” by Melinda Webber, Reumah Horne and Rāhera Meinders, explores whether the choice of role models among Māori secondary students could influence their educational goals and aspirations. Through a qualitative analysis of survey responses from Ngāpuhi secondary students attending schools in Te Tai Tokerau, Northland, the article found the choice of influential whānau role models aligned with cultural values and influenced the students’ goals and aspirations in multiple ways, and these choices may be a key factor informing the students’ educational decisions.
In “Once were navigators: Reclaiming ancestral navigational methods as a methodological research practice”, Cadence Kaumoana contributes to the body of research of Indigenous kaupapa Māori research methodologies. The paper outlines the five navigational markers used in Polynesian navigation and aligns them to the stages in Te Arahina, posited as a research methodology apt for developing, revising and achieving research goals. The author has applied this to her own doctoral research on the entrepreneurial mindset.
The next article in this issue, “Mārakai as sites of ahi kaa and resistance” by Ken Taiapa, Helen Moewaka Barnes and Tim McCreanor, illustrates the contemporary relevance of mārakai practices for the reconnection to whenua. Employing qualitative methods grounded in a kaupapa Māori approach, the paper follows the journey of Te Moeone mārakai in Taranaki to show the relevance of mārakai as a reassertion of ahi kaa, and as a vehicle for the revitalisation of mātauranga and tikanga.
The ninth paper in this issue is titled “Ngā taonga mōhiotanga. Voices of kaumātua and early childhood education leaders” and is authored by Lesley Kay Rameka, Brenda Eva Soutar and Vanessa Anne Paki. Drawing on kaupapa Māori theory and methodological principles, the paper presents the first set of findings of a project aimed at exploring what opportunities are afforded to tamariki and mokopuna in early childhood education to recognise, attain and enhance mana through kaitiakitanga in order to support the collective well-being.
The research article “Tū manawa ora—tū manawa toa” by Aaron Hāpuku, Lee Thompson and Christina McKerchar explores aspects of contemporary Indigenous masculinities, focusing on the role of taiaha wānanga in the construction of identity for Māori men. Through a case study analysis in the rohe of Ngāi Tahu, the paper draws on a kaupapa Māori approach informed by constructivism to show that there is potential in the reframing of taiaha wānanga activities as hauora Māori programmes that may strengthen the cultural identity of tāne Māori.
“Researcher positionality as self-reflexivity in Indigenous entrepreneurship research: From Zimbabwe to Aotearoa” by Admiral Munyaradzi Manganda is a provocation to reflect on cultural empathy through the intergenerational experiences of researchers from different Indigenous backgrounds. The author presents his own life story and current research practice in Indigenous entrepreneurship as an illustration of how researcher positionality may direct research projects towards emancipatory and empowering goals for Indigenous peoples other than their own.
This final article, "Whatuora. Theorising a Kaupapa Māori arts-based methodology", by Hinekura Smith considers issues of identity, mana wāhine, and the place of Māori knowledge systems, while also attending to the lived realities of Māori—in this case wāhine Māori. The methodology introduced, which is called Whatuora, is designed to transcend disciplines, gender and research methods, and will be of interest to both Māori and Pacific researchers and Indigenous researchers globally. Approaches such as Whatuora allow for the targeting of the contentious issues of colonisation as part of ongoing research projects.
The first situation report in this issue, by Reremoana Theodore, Joanna Kidman, Sereana Naepi, Jesse Kokaua and Tara McAllister, continues the authors’ study of the inequities in Māori and Pacific promotions in New Zealand universities, and it is titled “Tackling systemic racism in academic promotion processes”. Building on their 2020 paper published in MAI Journal 9(3), the report addresses the persistent gaps in the promotion processes that discriminate against Māori and Pacific academics and provides recommendations towards system-wide change.
The second situation report, “Race-based hate crime in Aotearoa: Status report 2021” by Tina Ngata, Arama Rata and Dilwin Santos, reviews current developments in race-based crime in Aotearoa in the aftermath of the Christchurch Mosque attack in 2019. The report suggests that the current legislative frameworks are inadequate to address hate crime and hate speech and argues that change is needed to the way hate crimes are conceptualised, understood and responded to in Aotearoa.