Throughout history, indigenous peoples have demonstrated remarkable resilience in the face of significant adversity with this being demonstrated in the response of indigenous peoples to HIV, one of the greatest threats to health and well-being faced by people and communities today. High rates of HIV infection, combined with signifi cant social determinants of health, intensify and compound the vulnerability of indigenous peoples and communities to HIV. Evidence shows that indigenous peoples in some countries have been disproportionately affected by HIV and suffer from significant disparities related to high rates of chronic conditions, including long-term HIV infection. This article discusses how community-based initiatives can play a key role in overcoming the challenges associated with HIV faced by indigenous peoples. The discussion demonstrates how the inherent resilience of indigenous communities contributes to beneficial outcomes for indigenous communities affected by HIV.